Installing Debian behind a Windows proxy

The Debian “netinst” or network installer is a great way to download only the packages you need when installing a Debian system. However, as you might have guessed from the name, an internet connection is required during the installation. This might pose a problem if you find yourself installing a Debian system in a (corporate) Windows environment where internet access is restricted by a web proxy that uses Microsoft’s Active Directory for user authentication.

At some point during the installation the Debian installer lets you choose a download mirror and prompts you for the proxy settings. But no matter in which format you try to enter the proxy address and user credentials (e.g., http://user:password@proxyaddress:portnumber or something similar) the connection to the download mirror will probably fail and on virtual console 4 the following error message will be displayed:

mirror does not support the specified release

This does not necessarily mean what it says; taking a look at the proxy logfiles may instead reveal the true cause of this error with an entry like this:


The status message TCP_DENIED/407 tells us that authentication with the proxy has failed. It seems as though the Debian installer can’t properly handle the Windows/NTLM authentication used by the proxy. Don’t despair though, there are ways to fix this.

Possibility 1: Messing with the proxy

If you are in control of the proxy’s configuration you can of course just tell the proxy to allow access to the URLs (insert your local mirror here) and without any authentication. How to achieve this depends on the proxy server software you are using.

With these settings you can omit any username or password and just tell the Debian installer to use a proxy like http://proxyaddress:portnumber. Then the installation works like a charm.

Since the proxy settings are automatically written to /etc/apt/apt.conf in the form Acquire::http::Proxy "http://proxyaddress:portnumber"; any package management operations like installing or updating software packages will also work thereafter as long as the proxy allows access to the relevant URLs.

Possibility 2: Doing a netinst without net…

If you are not willing or able to modify your proxy’s configuration you can proceed with the installation process without an internet connection: Just skip the selection of a download mirror. The Debian installer will then continue without any problems and install a very minimal system.

… and adding internet access afterwards

Although you now have a perfectly working system you probably will want to install additional software packages or do other things that require internet access soon after the installation.

To do so, you can make Debian play nicely with an Windows/AD integrated web proxy using cntlm as described in a previous blog post. However, if you installed a minimal system without any internet connection, you obviously cannot install cntlm the usual way via aptitude or apt-get.

Instead, get the appropriate (32 or 64 bit) package for your system as a .deb file from the cntlm sourceforge site. You will of course have to do this on another computer which already is connected to the internet. Copy the .deb file to your newly installed system (e.g., via a USB drive or a web server in your local network) and install it with the following command (insert the name of your downloaded file):

sudo dpkg -i cntlm_0.92.3_amd64.deb

Then configure cntlm as described in the abovementioned blog post.

Finally, tell your system what download mirrors to use. This is necessary because if you skipped the selection of a download mirror during the Debian installation your system cannot know where to look for software repositories. You have to add download mirrors manually in /etc/apt/sources.list, consisting of lines like this:

deb wheezy main

Now you can install whatever software packages you need.